Aitor explains the process of obtaining your callsign, the processes to be carried out with the administration, and his experience with the examination of the Ministry of Telecommunications.
The Union of Spanish Radio Amateurs offers you more than 600 exam questions for you to practice and check your level of knowledge. Web
The purpose of this questionnaire is to prepare for the exam to obtain the operator diploma and, at the same time, the CEPT HAREC certificate.
The objective of the examination is to achieve a reasonable level of knowledge on the part of the applicants for a radio amateur license, according to the program included in the Instructions for the application of the Regulation of use of the public radio-electric domain for amateurs.
Exam simulator to be a radio amateur:
1.- THEORY OF ELECTRICITY, ELECTROMAGNETISM AND RADIO.
1.1. Conductivity: Conductors, semiconductors and insulators. - Intensity, voltage and resistance. - Units: amp, volt, ohm. - Ohm's law. - Kirchhoff's laws. - Electric power. - Unit: the watt. - Electric energy.- Capacity of a battery (ampere / hour).
1.2. Electricity sources: Electromotive force, potential difference, short-circuit current, internal resistance and voltage at the terminals. - Connection of voltage sources in series and in parallel.
1.3. Electric field: intensity of the electric field. - Unit: the volt / meter. - Isolation of electric fields.
1.4. Magnetic field: Magnetic field in the vicinity of a live conductor. - Isolation of magnetic fields.
1.5. Electromagnetic field: Radio waves as electromagnetic waves. - Propagation speed and its relation to frequency and wavelength. - Polarization.
1.6. Sinusoidal signals: Graphical representation in time. - Instantaneous, maximum, effective and average values. - Period and frequency. - Unit: hertz. - Phase difference.
1.7. Non-sinusoidal signals: Audio signal. - Square waves - Graphical representation in time. - Continuous component, fundamental signal and its harmonics. Noise, thermal noise, band noise, noise power density, noise power in the receiver bandwidth.
1.8. Modulated signals: Continuous wave modulation (CW) Amplitude modulation: Various types. Side bands. - Modulation percentage. - Band width. - Overmodulation and how to avoid it. - Double sideband and single sideband emissions. - Modulation in phase, and in frequency. - Frequency deviation and modulation index. - Carrier, sidebands and bandwidth. - CW, AM, SSB and FM waveforms and their graphic representation. Spectrum of CW, AM, SSB and its graphic representation. Digital modulation: FSK, 2PSK, 4PSK, and QAM, bit rate, symbol rate, and bandwidth. Detection and correction of errors (CRC and FEC).
1.9. Power and energy: Power of sinusoidal signals. - Power ratios expressed in decibels (dB). - Ratio between input power and output power in decibels (dB) of amplifiers and / or attenuators connected in series. - Adaptation and maximum power transfer. Relationship between input and output powers and performance. - Power at the crest of the envelope (pep).
1.10 Digital Signal Processing (DSP): Sampling and Quantification. - Minimum sampling frequency (Nyquist frequency). - Anti-aliasing and reconstruction filtering. - Analog to digital (A / D) and analog to digital (D / A) conversion.
2.1. Resistances: Unit: ohm. - Resistances: Various types. Color Coding - Current / Voltage Characteristic. - Power dissipation. - Positive and negative temperature coefficients (PTC and NTC).
2.2. Capacitors: Capacity. - Unit: the farad. - Relationship between capacity, dimensions and dielectric. - Capacitive reactance. - Phase relationship between voltage and current - Characteristics of fixed and variable capacitors: air, mica, plastic, ceramic and electrolytic. - Temperature coefficient. - Leakage current.
2.3. Coils: Self-induction. - Unity: the henry. - Effect of the number of turns, diameter, length and core material on inductance. - Reactance. - Phase relationship between voltage and current. Q factor. - Film effect. - Losses in conductive material.
2.4. Transformers, applications and uses: The ideal transformer (Pprim = Psec). - Relationships between number of turns and voltages, currents and impedances in primary and secondary. Transformers.
2.5. Diodes: Use and applications of diodes: Rectifiers, ZENER diodes, LEDs, and VARICAP. - Reverse voltage and leakage current.
2.6. Transistors: Bipolar Transistors (PNP and NPN). Amplification factor. - Field effect transistors. - Transistor configuration: common emitter (source), common base (gate), common collector (drain), input and output impedances and polarization methods.
2.7. Other components: Valves: elemental characteristics, types and most common applications - Valves in power stages. - Integrated circuits. - Digital circuits: generalities.
3.1. Combination of components: Series and parallel circuits of resistors, coils, capacitors, transformers and diodes. - Currents, voltages and impedances in these circuits. - Real behaviors of resistors, capacitor and coils at high frequencies.
3.2. Filters: Series and parallel tuned circuits: Impedance, resonance frequency, quality factor of a tuned circuit. - Bandwidth. - Low pass, high pass, band pass and band rejection filters with passive elements. - Frequency response. - Pi and T filters. - Quartz filters. - Digital filters.
3.3. Power Supplies: Full Wave Half Wave Rectifiers and Diode Bridge Rectifiers. Filtering circuits. - Voltage stabilizing circuits in low voltage sources. Switching power supplies, insulation and electromagnetic compatibility.
3.4. Amplifiers: Low frequency and radio frequency amplifiers. - Amplification factor, gain. Amplitude / frequency and bandwidth characteristics. - Polarization of class A, A / B, B and C amplifiers. - Harmonics and intermodulation distortion, amplifier stage overload.
3.5. Detectors / demodulators: AM detectors. - The diode as detector, the envelope detector. - Product detectors and smoothie oscillators, CW and SSB detectors. - FM demodulators. - Slope detectors. - Discriminators.
3.6. Oscillators: Feedback, intentional and unintended oscillation. - Factors that affect the frequency, frequency stability and conditions necessary for oscillation. - LC oscillators. - Crystal controlled oscillators and overtone oscillators. - Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). - Phase noise.
3.7 Frequency synthesizer circuits (PLL): - Control loop with phase comparison circuit. Frequency synthesizers with programmable divider.
3.8 Circuits with digital signal processors (DSP): Digital filters (IIR and FIR). Oscillators by direct digital synthesis. Other circuits with digital signal processors.
4.1. Receptor types: Single and double conversion superheterodyne receivers. - Direct conversion receivers.
4.2. Block diagrams: CW [A1A] receivers. - AM receivers (A3E). - Single sideband receivers with suppressed carrier [J3E]. - FM receivers (F3E).
4.3. Operation and operation of the following stages: Radio frequency amplifier. - Oscillators [fixed and variable]. - Mixer. - Intermediate frequency amplifier. - Limiter. - Detector. - Smoothie oscillator. - Low frequency amplifier. - Automatic gain control. - S. meter - Silencer.
4.4. Receiver characteristics [definitions]: - Adjacent channel. - Selectivity. - Sensitivity, noise in the receiver and noise figure. - Stability. - Image frequency. - Desensitization and blocking. - Intermodulation, cross modulation.
5.1. Transmitter types: Transmitters with or without frequency conversion.
5.2. Block diagrams: Continuous wave transmitters (A1A). - Single sideband transmitters with suppressed carrier (J3E). - FM transmitters (F3E).
5.3. Operation and operation of the following stages: Mixer. - Oscillator. - Preamplifier. - Exciter. - Frequency multiplier. - Power amplifier. - Outlet filter. - Frequency modulator. - Single sideband modulator. - Phase modulator. - Glass filters.
5.4. Transmitter Features (Definitions): Frequency Stability - Radio Frequency Bandwidth. - Side bands. - Audio frequency margin. - Nonlinear, harmonic and intermodulation distortion effects. - Output impedance. - Output power - Performance. - Frequency deviation. - Modulation index. - Unwanted emissions: spurious emissions and out-of-band emissions. - Radiation by structure. - Transceivers. - VHF and UHF repeaters. Repeaters location.
6. ANTENNAS AND TRANSMISSION LINES.
6.1. Antenna types: Center-fed half-wave antenna. - Half wave antenna fed at one end. - Folded dipole. - Vertical antenna in quarter wave, ground plane. - Yagi antenna. - Antenna opening, satellite dish, reflectors, horns. - Dipole with traps.
6.2. Antenna characteristics: Distribution of voltage and current. - Impedance at the power point. - Inductive or capacitive impedance of non-resonant antennas. - Polarization. - Gain directivity and efficiency of an antenna. - Capture area. - Effective radiated power. - Front-back relationship. - Vertical and horizontal polarization diagrams.
6.3. Transmission lines: Line of parallel conductors. - Coaxial cable. - Waveguides - Characteristic impedance of a transmission line. - Speed factor. - Standing wave ratio. - Losses in the transmission line. - Balun. - The quarter wave line as an impedance transformer. - Open and short circuited lines like tuned circuits. Tuners or antenna couplers.
Signal attenuation, signal / noise ratio. - Propagation of electromagnetic waves according to their frequency. - Propagation by direct vision, propagation in free space. - Layers of the ionosphere. - Influence of the sun on the ionosphere. - Critical frequency. - Maximum usable frequency. Optimal working frequency. Earth wave, space wave, radiation angle, jump distance. - Multiple jumps in the ionosphere. - fading - Troposphere. - Influence of the antenna height on the range (radio horizon). - Temperature inversion. Propagation through conduit. - Sporadic reflection. - Reflection by northern lights. Reflection by meteorites. - Moon reflection. - Galactic and thermal atmospheric noise. - Propagation prediction, basic calculation.
8.1. How to carry out the measurements of: Continuous and alternating currents and voltages. - Errors in measurements. - Influence of the frequency, waveform and internal resistance of the measuring equipment. - Measurement of resistance. - Continuous and radiofrequency power measurements (average power and peak power of the envelope). - Measurement of standing waves. - Waveform of the envelope in the radio frequency signal. - Frequency measurements. - Resonance frequency
8.2. Measurement equipment: Measurements using the following devices: - Analog and digital multimeter. - Radio frequency wattmeter. - Standing wave meter. - Frequency counter. - Oscilloscope. - Wattmeter. - Spectrum analyzer.
9. INTERFERENCE AND IMMUNITY.
9.1. Interference in electronic equipment: electromagnetic compatibility. - Blocking. - Interference with the desired signal. - Intermodulation. - Detection in audio circuits.
9.2. Causes of interference in electronic equipment: Transmitter field strength. - Spurious radiation from the transmitter (parasitic, harmonic radiation). - Unwanted influence on the equipment: - Via antenna. - Via other lines connected to the equipment. - By direct radiation.
9.3. Measures against interference: Measures to prevent and eliminate the effects of interference. Filtering, decoupling and shielding.
Special precautions to avoid electrical accidents in radio stations. Electrical installation: General and equipment protections. Protections against personal contacts. Grounding. Arrangement of antennas and power lines. Protections against atmospheric discharges. Grounding.
NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL OPERATING RULES AND PROCEDURES.
1. INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET.
Codes for spelling letters and numbers.
2. CODE Q.
Groups of the Q code most used in the amateur service.
Most common abbreviations in amateur communications.
4. INTERNATIONAL SIGNS OF HELP, URGENCY AND SECURITY, EMERGENCY TRAFFICKING AND COMMUNICATIONS IN CASE OF NATURAL DISASTERS.
Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone signals for alarm, distress, urgency and security. International use of radiocommunications in the frequency bands of the amateur service in the event of natural disasters (Res. 640 RR) Frequency bands allocated to the amateur service.
5. CALL DISTINCTIVES.
Identification of amateur radio stations. - Use of call signs. Composition of call signs. - National prefixes.
6. IARU BAND PLANS.
IARU gang plans. Objectives pursued in said plans.
7. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF THE RADIO AMATEUR. OPERATING PROCEDURES.
8. NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS ON THE SERVICE OF RADIO AMATEURS AND RADIO AMATEURS BY SATELLITE.
8.1 NATIONAL REGULATION ON RADIO AMATEURS.
Law 19/1983, of November 16, on the regulation of the right to install the antennas of amateur radio stations outside buildings. - Royal Decree 2623/1986, of November 21, which regulates the antenna installations of amateur radio stations. - Regulations for the Use of the Public Radio Domain by Amateurs. - Instructions for its application.
8.2 REGULATION OF THE CEPT.
Recommendation T / R 61-01. Temporary use of amateur stations in CEPT countries. Temporary use of amateur stations in non-CEPT countries adhering to the procedures of Recommendation T / R 61-01. Recommendation T / R 61-02.
8.3. REGULATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION.
Definitions of Amateur Services and Satellite Amateurs. - Definition of amateur radio station. - Provisions of the Radio Regulations affecting the amateur and amateur-satellite services. Conditions of use of the amateur and amateur satellite stations. - ITU Regions and Zones.
9. INSPECTION AND SANCTIONING REGIME.
Inspection and penalties for radio amateurs. Competent bodies for the inspection of equipment and stations of the amateur service. Infractions and sanctioning regime in the matter of radio amateurs.